Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (c. 1058–1111) is often referred to – by both Muslims and non-Muslims - as ‘the greatest Muslim after Muhammad’.
Ghazali set out to place severe limits on philosophy. In fact those limits were so severe that philosophy in the Muslim world hardly survived his remonstrations.
Ghazali was quite modern in his approach to causality. Yet here again, despite his ideas pre-dating David Hume’s by 700 years, all his positivistic or empiricist demolishing was done for Allah and Islam.
Ghazali singled out Avicenna (Ibn Sina, 980-1037) for special attack.
The Eternity of the World
Avicenna, as well as Averroes later, denied bodily resurrection; or at least that was what many Muslims, including Ghazali, thought. You may think that the denial of bodily resurrection was a very sophisticated philosophical position to take at that time (the 11th century). However, Ghazali uses a sophisticated philosophical argument to show the opposite.